The leaves of sorghum plants are well adapted to the hot and dry African climate. The relatively small leaf surface area and the fact that leaves fold closed under conditions of drought stress, reduces transpiration effectively. Cultivated sorghums have 4 embryonic leaves. The number of leaves on the main stem may vary from 7 to 24, as determined by genotype. Fully developed leaves may attain lengths of 30 to 135cm and widths of 1,5 to 13cm at the widest point. Leaves are lanceolate. When the leaf margins are longer than the midrib, the leaves develop a wavy appearance.
They are light green and in some cases, cultivars are glabrous. A waxy sediment is found near the base of the midrib where it joins the leaf sheath. Stomata occur in single or double layers on both surfaces of the leaf and motor cells are also found. These cause the leaf to fold closed in times of drought stress. The Leaf Sheath The leaf sheaths surround the stem and overlap each other right over left and left over right alternatively in the consecutive nodes. A powdery waxy deposit is sometimes found, particularly at the upper leaf sheaths. Where the waxy layer is thickly deposited, the leaf sheath has a bluish - white appearance.
Short, white hairs can be found at the base of the leaf sheath where it joins the node. The leaf junction The ligule by the leaf junction is about 2mm long and is initially translucent, but later dries completely. The upper free-standing half of the ligule is hairy. In some genotypes the ligule doesn't occur and the leaves have more upright appearance. The ligule lies close to the stem and prohibits intrusion of moisture, dust & insects.
7 Surprising Benefits Of Sorghum
by John Staughton
The major health benefits of sorghum include its ability to prevent certain types of cancer, help control diabetes, offer a dietary option to people with celiac disease, improve digestive health, build strong bones, promote red blood cell development, and boost energy and fuel production.
What is Sorghum?
Sorghum is the broad term for an entire genus of grasses that are native to tropical and subtropical regions around the world. While there are more than 30 different species of sorghum, only one is harvested for human consumption, while the others are primarily used as a fodder for animals.
The important species for humans, Sorghum bicolor, is native to Africa, but can now be found all around the world as a staple food. Sorghum is primarily used in the production of sorghum molasses, sorghum syrup and as a grain. Also, it can be used in the production of alcoholic beverages and even bio-fuels around the world. It is widely considered the fifth most important cereal crop in the world.
The versatility of sorghum, combined with the fact that it is acceptable for people with wheat allergies to eat, makes it extremely important as a staple crop in the world. Furthermore, the vast health benefits associated with sorghum make it a great alternative to other types of grains, grasses, and cereals that are commonly consumed across the globe. 
Sorghum Sorghum Nutrition Facts
Serving Size :
Water [g] 12.4
Energy [kcal] 329
Protein [g] 10.62
Total lipid (fat) [g] 3.46
Carbohydrate, by difference [g] 72.09
Fiber, total dietary [g] 6.7
Sugars, total [g] 2.53
Calcium, Ca [mg] 13
Iron, Fe [mg] 3.36
Magnesium, Mg [mg] 165
Phosphorus, P [mg] 289
Potassium, K [mg] 363
Sodium, Na [mg] 2
Zinc, Zn [mg] 1.67
Vitamin C, total ascorbic acid [mg] 0
Thiamin [mg] 0.33
Riboflavin [mg] 0.1
Niacin [mg] 3.69
Vitamin B-6 [mg] 0.44
Folate, DFE [µg] 20
Vitamin B-12 [µg] 0
Vitamin A, RAE [µg] 0
Vitamin A, IU [IU] 0
Vitamin E (alpha-tocopherol) [mg] 0.5
Vitamin D (D2 + D3) [µg] 0
Vitamin D [IU] 0
Fatty acids, total saturated [g] 0.61
Fatty acids, total monounsaturated [g] 1.13
Fatty acids, total polyunsaturated [g] 1.56
Fatty acids, total trans [g] 0.01
Cholesterol [mg] 0
Sources include : USDA 
According to USDA, sorghum is a powerhouse in terms of nutrients.  When included in the diet, it can provide vitamins like niacin, riboflavin, and thiamin, as well as high levels of magnesium, iron, copper, calcium, phosphorous, and potassium, as well as nearly half of the daily, required intake of protein and a very significant amount of dietary fiber (48% of the recommended intake).
Health Benefits of Sorghum
The health benefits of sorghum in relation to our digestive process are innumerable. It helps in treating many diseases as well. Let’s discuss the benefits in detail.
Improves Digestive Health
Sorghum is one of the best foods out there for dietary fiber. A single serving of sorghum contains 48% of your daily recommended intake of dietary fiber, means that your digestive tract will keep your food moving along smoothly, preventing cramping, bloating, constipation, stomach aches, excess gas, and diarrhea. Furthermore, excess amounts of fiber in the body helps to scrape off dangerous cholesterol (LDL), which helps to improve heart health and protect your body from conditions like atherosclerosis, heart attack, and stroke.
According to a research by Dr. Joseph M. Awika from the Soil and Crop Sciences Department, Texas A&M University, the bran layer of the sorghum grains contains important antioxidants, anthocyanins, that are not found in many other types of food.  These antioxidants have been directly connected to a reduced chance of developing various types of cancer, including esophageal cancer, particularly in comparison to people who regularly eat wheat and corn. Antioxidants are the beneficial compounds that neutralize and eliminate free radicals in the body, which often cause healthy cells in the body to mutate into cancerous cells.
Excessive carbohydrates break down into simple sugars and wreak havoc on the glucose levels in the body, leading to diabetes, or causing chaos for people who already suffer from this disease.  However, the tannin-rich bran of sorghum has enzymes that inhibit the absorption of starch by the body, which can help to regulate insulin and glucose levels in the body. Thus, diabetics won’t suffer as many plunges and spikes in their glucose levels.
Relieves Gluten Allergy
Celiac disease is a severe allergy to gluten, which is primarily found in wheat-based products. Surprisingly, gluten is found in thousands of normal food items, making the life for those suffering from celiac disease very difficult. Fortunately, the Clinical Nutrition journal has covered a collaborative research, which highlights that alternative grains and grasses such as sorghum, can be eaten safely by those suffering from this increasingly common condition, without the painful inflammation, nausea, and gastrointestinal damage that gluten causes. 
Improves Bone Health
Magnesium is found in high quantities in sorghum, which means that your calcium levels will be properly maintained, as magnesium increases calcium absorption in the body. These two minerals are also integral to the development of bone tissue and speed up the healing of damaged or aging bones. This can prevent conditions like osteoporosis and arthritis, keeping you active and healthy into your old age.
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